About us

The Navigator to Direct Democracy features direct democracy procedures and practices worldwide. It is being created as a global information and collaboration platform based on the general typology of modern direct democracy. An small team of Political Scientist oversees the Navigator.

Dr. Eike-Christian Hornig
Senior Research Fellow


Auf dem Kirchhügel
St. Luziweg 2
LI-9487 Gamprin-Bendern
Principality of Liechtenstein

E-Mail: Eike-Christian.Hornig@Liechtenstein-Institut.li 

Homepage: www.liechtenstein-institut.li

Tel. +423 373 30 22


Dr. Hornig is a Senior Research Fellow at the Liechtenstein-Institute in Gamprin/Bendern in the Principality of Liechtenstein. He joined the Institute in 2021 after positions as Assistant Professor and Visiting Professor at the University of Erfurt and the Technical University of Darmstadt (both Germany). He received his Doctorate from the University of Osnabrueck in 2011. His interest in politics focuses on the interplay of direct and representative democracy and the changes of political participation in general. In a comparative perspective, he especially studies parties and referendums in Germany, Italy, Taiwan, Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Hornig was awarded the Taiwan (R.O.C.) Fellowship in 2020.


Hornig, Eike-Christian (2021): Direkte Demokratie in Italien – zwischen Reform und Beharrung, in: Direkte Demokratie. Festschrift für Otmar Jung, Heußer, Hermann/Pautsch, Arne/Wittreck, Fabian (Hrsg.), Stuttgart: Richard Boorberg Verlag, 471-497. 

Hornig, Eike-Christian (2021):The German Parties’ Reaction to the 2015 Refugee CrisisA Long-Term Analysis of Party Positioning Dynamics, in: Immigration Policy and Crisis in the Regional Context: Asian and European Experiences, Chu, Chin-peng/Park, Sang-Chul (eds.), Springer, 165-184. 

Hornig, Eike-Christian (2020): Direkte Demokratie?, in: Politische Parteien in der modernen Demokratie, Grünewald, Robert/Busch-Janser, Sandra/Piepenschneider, Melanie (eds.), Beiträge zur Politischen Bildung der Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, Münster: LIT Verlag, 445-461. 


Hornig is involved in different ongoing projects. First and foremost he is interested in further developing the Navigator-project to a true hub for all interested in direct democracy. Besides that, Hornig is conducting research on the genesis of party positions in referendums. A paper will be presented at the ECPR-GC in 2021. Finally is studying direct democracy in Taiwan from a comparative democratization perspective.




Dr. Klaus Hofmann
Senior Research Fellow

Democracy  International           
Gürzenichstr.  21 a-c
D-50667 Köln
E-Mail: hofmann@democracy-international.org     
Homepage: www.democracy-international.org
Tel. +49 221 669 665 33           


Dr. Hofmann is a founding member of Democracy International. In 2010, he launched the Direct Democracy Navigator project for the association and has continuously worked on it since. From 2015 until 2020, he was in charge of the Navigator as a research fellow at the Institute for Democracy and Participation Research [i:DPF] at Bergische University Wuppertal. He studied sociology and received his Doctorate from the University of Frankfurt/Main in 1990. His interests focus on the interaction of political culture and the use of direct democracy instruments in a comparative perspective.


Klaus Hofmann, Kolja Naumann (Hg): Europäische Demokratie in guter Verfassung?, Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft (2010)
Klaus Hofmann: Die Auswirkungen des Wahlrechts in Brandenburg, Studien zur Demokratie. Mehr Demokratie e.V. (2009)

Hofmann/Slonka/Wolf: Wahlrecht und Gewählte,   Studien zur Demokratie. Mehr Demokratie e.V. (2007)           


Hofmann  will continue to be a part of developing the Navigator-project. He is conducting research on the role of plebiscites in the context  of peacebuilding processes and planning a symposium on this topic in 2022 at the University of Wuppertal.